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Category: Securities Regulation

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UCLA Law Review Vol. 61, Issue 3

Volume 61, Issue 3 (February 2014)
Articles

How to Feel Like a Woman, or Why Punishment Is a Drag Mary Anne Franks 566
Free: Accounting for the Costs of the Internet’s Most Popular Price Chris Jay Hoofnagle & Jan Whittington 606
The Case for Tailoring Patent Awards Based on Time-to-Market Benjamin N. Roin 672

 

Comments

Here Comes the Sun: How Securities Regulations Cast a Shadow on the Growth of Community Solar in the United States Samantha Booth 760
Restoration Remedies for Remaining Residents David Kane 812

 

 

 

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Vanderbilt Law Review En Banc – Roundtable: The JOBS Act and SEC Rulemaking

Vanderbilt Law Review En Banc is pleased to present our Spring 2013 Roundtable, which considers the SEC’s rulemaking authority under the JOBS Act of April 2012.

Practicing securities attorney Douglas Ellenoff, and Professors Usha Rodrigues and Andrew Schwartz each consider the public policy rationales of the JOBS Act, its legislative history, congressional intent, and practical considerations in order to offer some friendly advice to new Chairman Mary Jo White and the Commission.

Mr. Ellenoff and Prof. Schwartz focus on the rules required or allowed relating to crowdfunding under Title III of the Act, while Prof. Rodrigues examines the lifting of the ban on solicitation and advertising of securities offered to accredited investors under Title II. We hope you find this Roundtable informative and engaging.

Roundtable Essays

Making Crowdfunding CREDIBLE
Douglas S. Ellenoff · 66 Vand. L. Rev. En Banc 19 (2013)

In Search of Safe Harbor: Suggestions for the New Rule 506(c)
Usha Rodrigues · 66 Vand. L. Rev. En Banc 29 (2013)

Keep It Light, Chairman White: SEC Rulemaking Under the CROWDFUND Act
Andrew A. Schwartz · 66 Vand. L. Rev. En Banc 43 (2013)

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Call for Papers: National Business Law Scholars Conference

I am delighted to pass along the following notice from the organizers of the National Business Law Scholars Conference.  I’m also honored to report that they have asked me to deliver the keynote at this year’s conference, and I look forward to doing so.  

Deadline Extended to May 31

We have received an enthusiastic response to the Call for Papers for the National Business Law Scholars Conference, scheduled for June 12-13, at The Ohio State University School of Law.  We will have additional openings for anyone who would like to make a presentation but has not yet responded.  Thus, we have extended the deadline to MAY 31st.  See the Call for Papers, re-posted below with the extended deadline date, for details on how to submit:

National Business Law Scholars Conference: Call-for-Papers

The National Business Law Scholars Conference (NBLSC)  will be held on Wednesday, June 12th and Thursday, June 13th at The Ohio State University Michael E. Moritz College of Law in Columbus, Ohio.  This is the fourth annual meeting of the NBLSC, a conference which annually draws together dozens of legal scholars from across the United States and around the world.  We welcome all on-topic submissions and will attempt to provide the opportunity for everyone to actively participate.  Junior scholars and those considering entering the legal academy are especially encouraged to participate.

To submit a presentation, email Professor Eric C. Chaffee at echaffee1@udayton.edu with an abstract or paper by MAY 31, 2013.  Please title the email “NBLSC Submission – {Name}”.  If you would like to attend, but not present, email Professor Chaffee with an email entitled “NBLSC Attendance”.  Please specify in your email whether you are willing to serve as a commentator or moderator.  A conference schedule will be circulated in late May.

Conference Organizers:

Barbara Black (University of Cincinnati)
Eric C. Chaffee (University of Dayton)
Steven M. Davidoff (The Ohio State University)

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Auditing’s Snafu: Foreign Secrecy and Impaired Audits

Many US companies maintain substantial global operations, with increasing volumes of business done in China; many foreign companies are listed on US securities exchanges.  This cross-border expansion makes the reliability of financial reports created in foreign locales increasingly important.  Yet, in tandem with this cross-border expansion, there have been increasing assertions abroad, including in China, that local secrecy laws restrict access to the work papers of auditors, frustrating the ability of US federal authorities to enforce US securities laws designed to promote financial reporting integrity.

The snafu was joined this week in a case where the SEC is seeking access to audit work papers of a Deloitte affiliate in Shagnhai but the firm refuses.  The firm’s lawyers cite Morrison v. National Australia Bank, the 2010 SCOTUS ruling that, absent explicit language, federal statutes are seen as intended to apply within the US, not be extraterritorial.  It said that the federal securities laws lacked such explication.   

Furthermore, for Deloitte to comply with the SEC’s requests, the lawyers said, would risk committing a serious crime under Chinese law, one punishable by imprisonment. Deloitte’s lawyers say that the combination of Morrison and Chinese secrecy laws puts the records beyond the SEC’s reach.

Lawyers for the SEC object that these points cannot possibly be seen to limit the SEC’s administrative subpoena power under which it has demanded the Deloitte documents. But, during oral argument, the SEC’s lawyers did not acquit themselves well, according to one report, as they could not readily cite the precise legal authority supporting their position. 

Deloitte says there isn’t one and that the appropriate procedure to handle such cross-border securities matters is by diplomacy not enforcement. In this view, the SEC is wrong to proceed against Deloitte in court but must dispatch appropriate US officials to broker a resolution with Chinese regulatory counterparts.

The stakes are high for both sides in the case, of course, and for investors and students of auditing. After all,  audits endow financial statements with credibility. Shareholders are willing to pay for audits in exchange for that credence value.  But if an auditor’s work papers are top secret, inaccessible even to a regulatory overseer, how much of an audit’s credence value is lost? Is it still rational for shareholders to condone paying the auditor’s fee?

When the credibility of financial statements are in doubt, investors should shun their issuer and sell the stock.  A critical mass of shareholders of companies affected by this snafu might do well to follow that old-fashioned Wall Street Rule. If they did, then, along with such companies, the need to resort to either a diplomatic or enforcement solution would disappear. Read More

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Note to Senate: Ask Mary Jo White About DPAs

To show he is getting tougher on Wall Street, President Obama has nominated Mary Jo White, the former head of the U.S. Attorney’s office in New York, as chair of the SEC. White oversaw the prosecutions of John Gotti and the terrorists responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center bombings and is a veteran of white collar criminal prosecutions and defense.

Many Americans applaud such displays of toughness, worried that “too big to fail” means “too big to jail.” That is, criminal indictment of a large financial institution threatens its existence and, along with it, economic recovery.

But prosecutors are getting tough on big banks, evident in the recent LIBOR interest rate rigging cases, such as that against Royal Bank of Scotland announced this week, and the money laundering case at HSBC made at year-end. Prosecutors resolved these cases by obtaining admissions of guilt and large fines in exchange for deferring prosecution under agreements that require good corporate behavior for several years.

Under such deferred prosecution agreements, or DPAs, prosecutors flex their muscles by imposing extensive internal reforms at the company. Their goal is to change corporate culture to promote greater accountability and likelihood of compliance with law. Some terms, however, may go overboard, and there is reason to worry about unintended consequences.

Such deals typically require the company to hire an army of compliance officers to roam the company in search of rogues and to train employees in the best practices of compliance programming. In many cases, DPAs require hiring an outside consultant to direct additional steps to be taken and an independent monitor to watch over all the changes during the probation period.

But installing such personnel and programs is no guarantee of succeeding in promoting any particular culture or result. Corporations differ in their histories, philosophies, and business models, negating the possibility of a one-size-fits-all approach to altering culture in desired ways.   (For a dramatic example of the danger, consider the experience at AIG from 2005 to 2008, which I document in the new book The AIG Story, and which is summarized in this week’s review of the book in the Wall Street Journal.)  Prosecutors often do not understand corporate governance well enough to direct reforms and they rarely explain their reasons when they impose such changes. 

Prosecutors should enforce the law and hold people and institutions accountable for violations. When prudent they should settle a matter on terms that may include internal corporate reforms. But they also must make an effort to assure that the reforms they propose will work with the valid parts of the corporate cultures where they are implanted. Failure to do so can be disastrous. When the Senate evaluates Ms. White’s nomination for SEC chair, Senators would do well to ask what she thinks about using DPAs to reform corporate culture.

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Are Hackers Inefficient?

It’s been a very interesting first day at the Security and Human Behavior 2012 conference, chaired by computer security guru Bruce Schneier.

A number of speakers agreed on a basic description of computer security vulnerabilities: (1) there is a long run-up period where vulnerabilities exist but are not exploited; and (2) an exploit is developed and other attackers adopt it rapidly.

That raises the question — are the hackers (collectively) being efficient? The analogy is to the debate in economics about the Efficient Capital Markets Hypothesis (ECMH).  The ECMH essentially says that you cannot expect to get above-normal returns — the market is efficient and you can’t beat the market.  (Since the 2008 crash there has been lots of new doubt about the ECMH among mainstream economists.)

The long period of non-attacks at least raises the possibility that there is “inefficiently low investment in hacking.”  I use “inefficient” here in a special sense — the market is “inefficient” if there are attack strategies for the hackers that are likely to get a high risk-adjusted return.  When there are so many vulnerabilities that are not attacked, the idea is that hackers collectively quite possibly are leaving money on the table.

Of course, a certain level of non-attacks is rational.  Suppose you expect to spend $1000 in time and effort to write an attack, and the expected pay-off is only $700.  Then we rationally don’t see that attack.  But the large number of existing vulnerabilities at least hints that if you spend $1000 then you might expect a big pay-off, such as $5000. After all, the attacks get used a lot once they are publicized, showing a potential pay-off.

I actually wrote about the ECMH and computer security in a 2004 article called “A Model for When Disclosure Helps Security: What is Different About Computer and Network Security?”  But it was a short discussion at the end of a piece that people read for other reasons.  The computer security folks at the conference today hadn’t worked through the comparison and seemed intrigued — I think it might be a fruitful way to think about vulnerabilities and hacker behavior.

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Call for Papers: Dodd-Frank

Call for Papers:

Financial Institutions and Consumer Financial Services Section

AALS Annual Meeting – January 2012

Rubber Hits Road: Implementing Dodd-Frank amid Reform Fatigue

This program will take place one and a half years after the Dodd-Frank Act was signed into law. The law left many of the details of financial reform to be filled in by regulators, raising the risk of capture. Some of the most important rule makings have begun in earnest; others have stalled as reform fatigue sets in. Meanwhile, reform efforts in Europe and international regulatory initiatives remain works-in-progress.

What lessons can we draw from the implementation of Dodd-Frank so far? What have been the greatest achievements and the greatest disappointments as the legislative process has given way to the administrative? What devils have lain hidden in the details of the Federal Register? What aspects of reform have been largely forgotten? What does the path of financial reform say about legislative and regulatory process? What lessons can be drawn from the reform efforts in Europe and elsewhere? Does the focus on regulating institutions detract from a focus on regulating financial instruments, markets or economic functions and risks?

More ominously, is the crisis truly over? Are we at grave risk of fighting the last war? Has reform missed the mark altogether? This meeting is part of a project to engage the legal academy in sustained theoretical and policy contributions to financial regulation. It also presents an opportunity to look at specific rulemakings in detail, as well as to address larger questions about the course of reform after laws are made.

Call for papers:

Law teachers and other scholars are invited to submit manuscripts or abstracts dealing with any aspect of the foregoing topics. Junior faculty members are particularly encouraged to submit manuscripts or abstracts. A review committee consisting of Section officers will select one or more papers or proposals and will invite the author(s) of each selected submission to present their work at the program session in Washington, D.C. in January 2012.

Abstracts should be comprehensive enough to allow the review committee to meaningfully evaluate the aims and likely content of papers they propose. Please send manuscripts or abstracts to the Program Chair (Erik Gerding, University of Colorado) at profgerding@gmail.com no later than August 30, 2010. Please place the name and contact information of authors only on the cover page of submissions.

Please forward this Call for Papers to anyone who might be interested.

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Targeting Odious Top Pay Contracts

Cross-posted at Harvard Law School’s Corporate Governance blog, this summarizes in some detail my new paper on applying simple contract principles to police odioius executive pay contracts:

Executive pay has skyrocketed in recent decades, in absolute terms and compared to average wages. The area of largest growth has been in stock-based components, including stock options, often tending to focus on the short-term, with associated risks we’ve seen. A vigorous academic debate has run for more than a decade, becoming a popular political discussion amid the financial crisis exposing arcane debate to public scrutiny.

Growth could be laudable, explained as creating proper incentives to align manager interests with shareholder interests and to promote optimal risk taking. In this view, if there is a problem, it is narrow and limited. Critics are skeptical whether this story holds up. They worry that managerial power has strengthened to enable top executives to control setting their own compensation. In this view, the problem is pervasive and warrants a comprehensive response—and proposals abound.

I come down in the middle. There are problems in at least an important number of cases, and current proposals to redress them are unlikely to work. So I seek a new approach—contract unconscionability—to police extreme cases. The proposal must surmount some hurdles but isn’t as radical as it sounds.

A good way to summarize the debate highlights a three-pronged theory that promotes much of prevailing executive compensation, especially stock-based components, and contrasts it with limits on each prong.

First: in optimal contracting theory, boards design manager contracts to minimize agency costs. But when managers dominate the process, the managerial power thesis suggests this ideal may not be met.

Second: with efficient stock markets, stock price is a good proxy for the shareholder interest and a mirror of managerial performance. But stock price can differ from business value for sustained periods, fogging both.

Third: stock-based pay could align managerial incentives with shareholder interests if designed right and markets work well. But otherwise they create perverse effects. Read More

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Law & Econ’s Influence on Law & Accounting

The hottest book of the century, on corporate law, is in production, thanks to editors Brett McDonnell and Claire Hill, both of Minnesota. As part of a series investigating the economics of particular legal subjects, overseen by Richard Posner and Francesco Perisi, this Research Handbook on the Economics of Corporate Law, promises a comprehensive canvass of the broadest definition of this field of law as it has been structured by economic theories over the past forty years.

My contribution addresses the influence of law and economics on the sub-field of law and accounting, which I suggest takes the form of “two steps forward one step back.”  You can read a draft of my chapter (comments welcome!), available free here, accompanied by the following abstract:

Theory can have profound effects on practice, some intended and desirable, others unintended and undesirable. That’s the story of the influence the field of law and economics has had on the domain of law and accounting. That influence comes primarily from agency theory and modern finance theory, specifically through the efficient capital market hypothesis and capital asset pricing model. Those theories have forged considerable change in federal securities regulation, accounting standard setting, state corporation law, and financial auditing. Affected areas include the nature of disclosure, the measure of financial concepts, the limits of shareholder protection, and the scope of auditor duty.

Analysis reveals how agency theory and finance theory often but not always point to the same policy implications; it reveals how finance theory’s assumptions and limitations are often but not always respected in policy development. As a result, while these theories sometimes produced policy changes that were both intended and desirable, some policy changes were both unintended and undesirable while others were intended but undesirable.  Examination stresses the power of ideas and how they are used and cautions creators and users of ideas to take care to appreciate the limits of theory when shaping practice. That’s vital since the effects of law and economics on law and accounting remain debated in many contexts.

Other contributions to the book similarly available in draft form are by Matt Bodie (St. Louis), David Walker (BU) and Charles Whitehead (Cornell).  The following scholars are also contributing chapters: Bobby Ahdieh (Emory), Steve Bainbridge (UCLA), Margaret Blair (Vandy), Rob Daines (Stanford), Steve Davidoff (Ohio State), Jill Fisch (Penn), Tamar Frankel (BU), Ron Gilson (Stanford/Columbia), Jeff Gordon (Columbia), Sean Griffith (Fordham), Don Langevoort (GT), Ian Lee (Toronto), Richard Painter (Minnesota), Frank Partnoy (SD), Gordon Smith (BYU), Randall Thomas (Vandy), and Bob Thompson (GT).

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GW’s Junior Scholars Finalists

Thanks to my colleague, Lisa Fairfax, GW has finalized the program for this year’s Junior Faculty Business and Financial Law Workshop and Prize (detailed here).   Of the more than 100 papers submitted, the following dozen presenters were chosen.  [Commentators appear in brackets; I've shortened some paper titles.]  

 The workshop will take place at GW on April 1 and 2, 2011.  We are delighted by the submissions, congratulate those chosen, and stress that making the selections was difficult because of the volume of amazing papers.  We encourage everyone interested to attend and look forward to the weekend.

Adam Leviton (Georgetown), In Defense of Bailouts [George Geis (Virginia) & Art Wilmarth (GW)]

Jodie Kirshner (Cambridge), A Transatlantic Perspective on Regional Dynamics and Societa Eurpoea [Francesca Bignami (GW) & Theresa Gabaldon (GW)]

Alan White (Valparaiso), Welfare Economics and Regulation of Small-Loan Credit: Lessons from Microlending in Developing Nations [Michael Pagano (Villanova) & Lawrence Mitchell (GW)]

Nicola Sharpe (Illinois), Corporate Board Performance and Organizational Strategy [Deborah Demott (Duke) & Michael Abramowicz (GW)]

Julie Hill (Houston), The Rise of Ad Hoc Bank Capital Requirements [Anna Gelpern (American) & John Buchman (E*Trade Bank & GW Adjunct)]

Michael Simkovic (Seton Hall), The Effects of Ownership and Stock Liquidity on the Timing of Repurchase Transactions [Richard Booth (Villanova) & Henry Butler (Mason)]

Michelle Harner (Maryland), Activist Distressed Debtors [Donna Nagy (Indiana Bloomington) & Lisa Fairfax (GW)]

Saule Omarova (UNC), The Federal Reserve Board’s Use of Exemptive Power [Patricia McCoy (Connecticut) & Arthur Wilmarth (GW)]

Heather Hughes (American), Suburban Sprawl, Finance Law and Environmental Harm [Scott Kieff (GW) & Lawrence Cunningham (GW)]

Robert Jackson (Columbia), Private Equity and Executive Compensation [Norman Veasey (Weil Gotshal) & William Bratton (Penn)]

Brian Quinn (BC), Putting Your Money Where Your Mouth Is: Post Closing Price Adjustments in Merger Agreements? [Gordon Smith (BYU) & John Pollack (Schulte Roth)]

Mehrsa Baradaran (BYU), Reconsidering Wal-Mart’s Bank [Heidi Schooner (Catholic) & Renee Jones (BC)]

This is one of many events sponsored by GW’s Center for Law, Economics and Finance.