Site Meter

Category: Privacy (Electronic Surveillance)

2

NSA Surveillance and the First Amendment

NSA3.jpgEarlier today, a federal district judge struck down the Bush Administration’s NSA surveillance program which involved intercepting international electronic communications without a warrant. The opinion is available here. I have not had time to read the opinion carefully yet, but I am especially intrigued by the court’s use of the First Amendment as one of the grounds to invalidate the program. I just completed an article entitled The First Amendment as Criminal Procedure in which I argue for First Amendment regulation of government information gathering. In the final section, I have a discussion of the NSA surveillance program.

The court’s First Amendment analysis is very brief, and I agree with Jack Balkin who observes that the “first amendment holding is novel although plausible, but it is not supported by very good arguments.” The First Amendment argument is indeed a difficult and complex one and it deserves more than just a few pages to develop. My article attempts to flesh out the First Amendment argument. Here’s the abstract:

This article explores the relationship between the First Amendment and criminal procedure. These two domains of constitutional law have long existed as separate worlds, rarely interacting with each other. But many instances of government information gathering can implicate First Amendment interests such as freedom of speech, association, and religion. The Fourth and Fifth Amendments used to provide considerable protection for First Amendment interests, as in the famous 1886 case, Boyd v. United States, where the Supreme Court held that the government was prohibited from seizing a person’s private papers. Over time, however, Fourth and Fifth Amendment protection shifted, and now countless searches and seizures involving people’s private papers, the books they read, the websites they surf, the pen names they use when writing anonymously, and so on fall completely outside of the protection of constitutional criminal procedure. Professor Solove argues that the First Amendment provides protection against government information gathering implicating First Amendment interests. He contends that there are doctrinal, historical, and normative justifications to develop what he calls “First Amendment criminal procedure.” Solove sets forth an approach to determine when certain instances of government information gathering fall within the regulatory domain of the First Amendment and what level of protection the First Amendment should provide.

I welcome any comments. Eugene Volokh has some interesting analysis of the court’s First Amendment analysis here.

0

Privacy, Information, and Technology

Spinoff Cover 2e.jpgMy new casebook, PRIVACY, INFORMATION, AND TECHNOLOGY (ISBN: 0735562548) (with Marc Rotenberg & Paul M. Schwartz) is now hot off the presses from Aspen Publishers. It is an abridged version (300 pages) of our regular casebook, INFORMATION PRIVACY LAW

(2d ed.), which is about 1000 pages in length.

Privacy, Information, and Technology is designed as a supplement to courses and seminars in technology law, information law, and cyberlaw. It will provide between 2-4 weeks of coverage of information privacy issues pertaining to technology, government surveillance, databases, consumer privacy, and government records.

More information about the book is here. If you’re interested in getting a review copy of the book, please send an email to Daniel Eckroad.

The book will sell for $35 and can be purchased on Aspen’s website.

The book consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 contains an overview of information privacy law, its origins, and philosophical readings about privacy. Chapter 2 covers issues involving law enforcement, technology, and suveillance. Chapter 3 focuses on government records, databases, and identification. Chapter 4 covers business records, financial information, identity theft, privacy policies, anonymity, data mining, and government access to private sector data.

The full table of contents is available here.

2

Employer Liability for Not Monitoring Its Employees’ Computer Use

computer2a.jpgThe United States v. Ziegler case I wrote about in a previous post brings to mind a radical employment law case decided last December in New Jersey. [Thanks to Charlie Sullivan and Timothy Glynn for bringing the case to my attention]. The case is Doe v. XYC, 887 A.2d 1156 (N.J. Super. 2005). Since I couldn’t find a version of it online, I’ve posted a copy here.

In Doe v. XYC, Jane Doe sued XYC Corporation on behalf of her daugher, Jill. XYC Corporation employed Jane’s husband and Jill’s stepfather (referred to in the opinion as the “Employee”). The Employee “had been secretly videotaping and photographing Jill at their home in nude and semi-nude positions. Jill was ten years old at the time.” The Employee “tramsitted three of the clandestinely-taken photos of Jill Doe over the Internet from his workplace computer to a child pron site in order to gain access to the site. Employee later acknowledged that he stored child pornogrpahy, including nude photos of Jill Doe, in his workplace computer.”

The court held that XYC Corporation could be liable:

We hold that an employer who is on notice that one of its employees is using a workplace computer to access pornography, possibly child pornography, has a duty to investigate the employee’s activities and to take prompt and effective action to stop the unauthorized activity, lest it result in harm to innocent third parties. No privacy interest of the employee stands in the way of this duty on the part of the employer.

Here’s how the court reached its conclusion. I’ll try my best to trace the steps of the court’s reasoning.

First, the court noted:

In this case, defendant had an e mail policy which stated that “all messages composed, sent or received on the e mail system are and remain the property of the [defendant]. They are not the private property of any employee.” Further, defendant reserved the “right to review, audit, access and disclose all messages created, received or sent over the e mail system as deemed necessary by and at the sole discretion of [defendant].” Concerning the internet, the policy stated that employees were permitted to “access sites, which are of a business nature only” and provided that:

Any employees who discover a violation of this policy shall notify personnel. Any employee who violates this policy or uses the electronic mail or Internet system for improper purposes shall be subject to discipline, up to and including discharge.

Second, XYC’s computer network administrator discovered that the Employee was visiting porn websites. Company officials told the Employee to stop. The Employee said he would halt this activity. Note that XYC was only on notice that the Employee was viewing porn, not child porn. Therefore, the court concluded, “[w]e impute to defendant knowledge that Employee was using his work computer to access pornography.”

Read More

0

Update on AT&T Surveillance Class Action

Orin Kerr has written about the case:

[T]his is (as far as I know) the first judicial opinion to express a view of the merits of the NSA program. Even if it’s dicta, the reasoning is unimpressive, and it is based only on facts alleged in the EFF’s complaint, Judge Walker’s statement that it “cannot seriously [be] contended” that “the alleged domestic dragnet was legal” based on the complaint seems likely to impact the debate.

You can read how Orin reached this conclusion here.

0

Hide and Seek: Class Action Against AT&T For Alleged Spying To Proceed

hide and seek 2.JPG

I am in the middle of arranging for movers so I can’t give any great detail on this one but CNET reports that:

A federal judge rejected on Thursday both the U.S. government’s and AT&T’s requests to dismiss a class-action suit accusing the telephone giant of assisting the National Security Agency in a sweeping, allegedly illegal terrorist surveillance program.

I hope that Orin Kerr or Dan Solove will provide some thoughts on the opinion. Nonetheless for those who wish to jump in and read the opinion, Judge Vaughn Walker’s 72-page opinion is available here.

A quick scan suggests that Judge Walker addresses many nuances of the program in question. For example, page 38 of the opinion has a chart that “summarizes what the government has disclosed about the scope of these programs in terms of (1) the individuals whose communications are being monitored, (2) the locations of those individuals and (3) the types of information being monitored.”

Examining the chart Judge Walked found that:

The government’s public disclosures regarding monitoring of “communication content” (i e, wiretapping or listening in on a communication) differ significantly from its disclosures regarding “communication records” (i e, collecting ancillary data pertaining to a communication, such as the telephone numbers dialed by an individual). See supra I(C)(1). Accordingly, the court separately addresses for each alleged program whether revealing the existence or scope of a certification would disclose a state secret.

Finally the court stated, “In sum, the court DENIES the government’s motion to dismiss, or in the alternative, for summary judgment on the basis of state secrets and DENIES AT&T’s motion to dismiss.”

23

Template for News Stories on Government Data Gathering

surveillance3.jpgNSA warrantless wiretaps. NSA collection of phone records. CIA gathering of financial records.

The stories are endless. To help out reporters, I thought I’d just write a quick and easy template to make reporting a little bit easier. So here it is:

Under a top secret program initiated by the Bush Administration after the Sept. 11 attacks, the [name of agency (FBI, CIA, NSA, etc.)] have been gathering a vast database of [type of records] involving United States citizens.

“This program is a vital tool in the fight against terrorism,” [Bush Administration official] said. “Without it, we would be dangerously unsafe, and the terrorists would have probably killed you and every other American citizen.” The Bush Administration stated that the revelation of this program has severely compromised national security.

“This program is a threat to privacy and civil liberties,” [name of privacy advocate] said. But [name of spokesperson for Bush Administration] said: “This is a very limited program. It only contains detailed records about every American citizen. That’s all. It does not compromise civil liberties. We have a series of procedures in place to protect liberty.”

“We’re not trolling through the personal data of Americans,” Bush said, “we’re just looking at all of their records.”

The [name of statute] regulates [type of record] and typically requires a [type of court order]. Although the [name of agency] did not obtain a [type of court order], the Bush Administration contends that the progam is “totally legal.” According to the Attorney General, “we can [do whatever we did or want to do]. The program is part of the President’s emergency war powers.”

20

The NSA Phone Call Database: The European Perspective

Had a European government, instead of the Bush administration, created the NSA’s call database, would that government be in violation of European privacy law? I think so, for the reasons I explore below.

Why should anyone care that the outcome would have been so different under European privacy law? One reason for the comparison with Europe is that it enables us to understand better current developments in American law. It is striking how similar American and European data privacy law was in the early 1970s, how different it is today. The first European database privacy statutes of the 1970s drew on the U.S. Privacy Act of 1974. Alan Westin’s Privacy and Freedom, published in 1967, was read widely by both American and European policymakers. There are many reasons for the divergent paths of the two systems. This latest example of difference highlights one set of reasons: the President’s new constitutional powers in fighting terrorism, post-September 11. Congress, the courts, and the public might very well accept that the NSA program is legal, based on the President’s inherent authority as commander-in-chief. In Europe, that would not be possible.

A more pragmatic reason for caring about the different result under European privacy law is that it could undermine transatlantic cooperation in the fight against terrorism. Some European laws forbid the transfer of public security and law enforcement data to countries without adequate privacy protection. This latest revelation just reinforces the European view that U.S. privacy laws are inadequate—and therefore could make European governments reluctant to turn over information on European citizens to the American government in the fight against terrorism.

Read More

106

Is There a Good Response to the “Nothing to Hide” Argument?

skeleton-in-closet.jpgOne of the most common attitudes of those unconcerned about government surveillance or privacy invasions is “I’ve got nothing to hide.” I was talking the issue over one day with a few colleagues in my field, and we all agreed that thus far, those emphasizing the value of privacy had not been able to articulate an answer to the “nothing to hide” argument that would really register with people in the general public. In a thoughtful essay in Wired (cross posted at his blog), Bruce Schneier seeks to develop a response to this argument:

The most common retort against privacy advocates — by those in favor of ID checks, cameras, databases, data mining and other wholesale surveillance measures — is this line: “If you aren’t doing anything wrong, what do you have to hide?”

Some clever answers: “If I’m not doing anything wrong, then you have no cause to watch me.” “Because the government gets to define what’s wrong, and they keep changing the definition.” “Because you might do something wrong with my information.” My problem with quips like these — as right as they are — is that they accept the premise that privacy is about hiding a wrong. It’s not. Privacy is an inherent human right, and a requirement for maintaining the human condition with dignity and respect.

As a pragmatist, I’m generally unconvinced by inherent rights talk. But Schneier goes on to discuss a reason for restricting government surveillance that I do agree with — ensuring that government power is appropriately checked, monitored, and limited from potential abuse.

Another argument is that if you look hard enough at someone’s life, in the words of playwright Friedrich Durrenmatt, “a crime can always be found.” With the infinite tangle of criminal laws in this country, Durrenmatt’s line might belong in a work of non-fiction rather than fiction. But this response gets back to Schneier’s objection that we shouldn’t focus on privacy as protection to hide wrongdoing.

Read More