Author: Solangel Maldonado

23

Stealing Love

Love is a wonderful thing, but sometimes love (or infatuation) leads individuals to engage in behavior that can hurt not only them, but also their families. I am talking about extramarital affairs. Although over 85% of Americans believe that adultery is morally wrong, countless spouses are unfaithful. Last week the NY Times discussed the benefits of an anti-love vaccine which would prevent humans from falling in love with the wrong person (i.e., someone who is committed to another person). While such a drug would do wonders for those who wish to fight the occasional urge to stray, it does little to deter individuals who have no qualms about pursuing someone else’s spouse. The law, however, might already provide a deterrent, albeit a quite controversial one.

A minority of states, including Mississippi, North Carolina, South Dakota, and Utah, still recognize a cause of action for alienation of affections against any person who wrongfully interferes with a person’s marriage, thereby causing that person to lose his or her spouse’s affection. Lest you think these causes of action are a thing of the past, this past August, the Mississippi Supreme Court upheld a $1.5 million verdict against an attorney who had an affair with his client’s wife. The plaintiff, who had hired the attorney in connection with a medical malpractice case, prevailed on his claims for intentional infliction of emotional distress, breach of contract, and alienation of affections. Further, even after abolishing the tort of alienation of affections, some states, including California, Connecticut, Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Oregon, and Virginia, have allowed claims arising from an extramarital affair to be brought against certain professionals, including attorneys, psychiatrists/psychologists, and clergymen providing marital counseling services, on a theory of intentional infliction of emotional distress, professional malpractice, negligent counseling, and breach of fiduciary duty. For example, eight years after abolishing the tort of alienation of affections, the Kentucky Supreme Court upheld a claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress against a priest who had an affair with the plaintiff’s wife to whom the priest was supposedly providing marriage counseling.

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16

Should Parents Lose Custody of Obese Kids?

As I was preparing my new syllabus, I came across a case that forced me to think about the extent to which parents should bear responsibility for their children’s obesity. It is well-known that obesity places children at greater risk of Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, kidney failure, and possibly cancer later in life. Sixteen percent of American children and adolescents are obese; another sixteen percent are overweight. The medical profession has warned that, as a result of the rise in childhood obesity, the current generation of American children may have shorter life expectancies than their parents.

I believe that parents should make efforts to provide their children with healthy foods and regular exercise. However, I question whether parents who do not control their children’s weight problem should lose custody of their children to the state? Are we willing to hold that a parent who does little to address his child’s obesity has neglected his child in the same way as if he had failed to provide him with adequate nourishment or supervision? Courts and child welfare agencies are grappling wth this issue. In a recent case, In re Brittany T., a New York Family Court ordered the removal of a morbidly obese child from her parents’ home based on the parents’ consistent failure to comply with the court’s order that they take her to the gym 2-3 times a week and attend a nutrition and education program, among other things. Although the case was reversed on appeal, the New York Appellate Division did not hold that child obesity can never be grounds for neglect, but rather that, in this particular case, the Department of Social Services had not shown that the parents had willfully violated the terms of the court’s order. In fact, although Brittany had gained 25 pounds in five months, the evidence showed that her parents had taken her to the gym at least once a week, had met with a nutritionist, and had kept a food log for her. Yes, the food log reflected that Brittany ate “lots of chicken nuggets, lots of pop tarts, hot dogs, and pizza,” but the parents had maintained the log, as ordered.

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5

Polygamists Indicted in British Columbia

The day after I posted What Exactly is Wrong with Polygamy, the Canadian press reported that two alleged leaders of the polygamous community of Bountiful in British Columbia had been charged with practicing polygamy in violation of the Criminal Code. The Code makes it a crime for any person to enter into “any kind of conjugal union with more than one person at the same time.” One of the charged men is alleged to have 20 wives; the other man is alleged to have two wives. There is no allegation that the defendants’ wives are underage. Although no charges have been brought against any of the wives, as Angela Campbell has pointed out, “[e]nforcing the criminal law against polygamy risks imprisoning not only the women’s husbands, but also them.”

The criminal indictment has placed the issue of polygamy at the forefront of Canadian constitutional law. The British Columbia authorities have been aware of the practice of polygamy in Bountiful for decades, but had chosen not to prosecute, in part, because some legal experts believe that the prohibition on polygamy will not survive a constitutional challenge. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms protects “freedom of conscience and religion.” In fact, the British Columbia Attorney General sought legal advice from three independent sources before deciding to approve the indictment and two recommended against charging the men with polygamy. The opinion of the third source has not been released.

Unlike the U.S. Supreme Court, which has rejected claims of religious freedom to practice polygamy, the Supreme Court of Canada has never addressed whether laws prohibiting polygamy violate the guarantee of religious freedom under the Charter of Rights. The accused men, who are alleging religious persecution, are likely to claim religious freedom as a defense to the charges. It will be interesting to see how this case develops.

59

What Exactly is Wrong With Polygamy?

Thanks to Concurring Opinions for inviting me back to blog this month. I look forward to your comments.

I have been thinking a lot about polygamy lately. As I prepare to teach Family Law once again, I am confronted with polygamy everywhere I turn. First, the third season of Big Love, the HBO series about a Utah entrepreneur struggling to support and “satisfy” his three wives and eight children, begins next week. Second, last April, the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services removed 468 children from their homes in a polygamous ranch. Although the Texas Supreme Court ordered the children’s return to their parents after finding no immediate danger warranting emergency removal, child protective services has continued its investigation in a handful of cases. Third, I have been following Professor Angela Campbell’s research on the polygamous community of Bountiful in British Columbia, which has challenged some of my assumptions about polygamous wives. Finally, I recently learned that polygamy is practiced in the U.S., not only by members of a fundamentalist Mormon sect in Utah, Arizona, and Texas, but also by Black Muslims and African immigrants in New York and Philadelphia. This brings me to the question I would like to raise: What exactly is wrong with polygamy? I will discuss some frequently made arguments and look forward to reading yours.

Polygamy is illegal in all 50 states. Yet, it is estimated that 50,000 to 100,000 men, women, and children live in polygamous households in the U.S. Most polygamists do not enter into plural marriages for purely personal reasons, but rather are guided by religious beliefs. Members of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (which broke with the Mormon church in 1890 when the latter disavowed polygamy) believe that only men who have at least three wives will enter the highest level of heaven and that women can only get to heaven if their husbands take them there. The United States Supreme Court, in Reynolds v. United States , rejected claims of religious freedom under the First Amendment to practice polygamy.

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12

Facilitating Paternal Involvement

In a post last week, I discussed some of the reasons why so many noncustodial fathers disengage from their children. I received many thoughtful comments, some of which discussed the law’s unstated preference for maternal custody and mothers’ interference with visitation. Admittedly, some mothers do interfere with visitation and courts should do more to enforce fathers’ rights. However, we cannot ignore the opposite problem—fathers who do not see their children even when there is no one preventing them from doing so. There are many fathers who see their children less often than the custodial mother would like and less often than they are entitled to under the custody and visitation order. However, while residential parents may not legally interfere with the other parent’s access to the child, there are no legal or social sanctions imposed on fathers who fail to pick up their children for the evening or weekend as scheduled. Some mothers have actually gone to court asking the judge to force their child’s father to exercise his visitation rights only to be informed that there is nothing the law can do.

I disagree. The law can do something. The social and legal forces I discussed last week may have pushed some fathers away from their children. Thus, the law has a responsibility to facilitate paternal involvement. Unacceptably high rates of paternal absence call for drastic measures. That is why I propose that the law attempt to bring fathers back into their children’s lives by adopting a presumption of joint legal custody and requiring that they participate in their children’s upbringing.

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18

Why Have Fathers Disappeared?

For years, policymakers have known that a significant proportion of fathers have little contact with their children once their relationship with their children’s mother ends. Although fathers today are less likely to disengage from their children than divorced fathers in previous decades, 20% to 30% of children have little or no contact with their fathers. Disengaged fathers—those who have had no contact with their children in the past year—pose a significant problem for society, especially their children. Although some studies suggest that children are no worse off when they have no contact with their fathers, other studies suggest otherwise. These latter studies have found that children who have regular “quality contact” (defined below) with their fathers tend to

■ adapt better to their parents’ divorce

■ have higher self-esteem

■ suffer lower rates of depression

■ experience fewer behavioral problems

■ enjoy higher levels of cognitive development, and

■ are more emotionally stable than children who have little or no contact with their fathers.

There is also evidence suggesting that children who share close relationships with their fathers might be less likely to

■ use drugs

■ attempt suicide

■ drop out of school

■ be unemployed

■ engage in early sexual activity and become pregnant at a young age

■ engage in anti-social and criminal behavior, or

■ disengage from their children–become absent fathers themselves

Just as important or perhaps even more so, children want to see their fathers and feel rejected when contact is infrequent. They blame themselves for their fathers’ absence, believing that their fathers abandoned them because they were “bad” or because they are simply unlovable.

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5

The Mommy Wars and Breast Milk

Last month, we saw the revival of the “Mommy Wars” once again. Triggered by the publication of Leslie Bennetts’ book, The Feminine Mistake, major newspapers, magazines, and blogs debated Bennetts’ premise that mothers who leave the workplace to raise children, even temporarily, risk significant economic losses in the future. As commentators debated the pros and cons of women’s life choices, and the effects on their children, there was little discussion of an issue that may have a much greater impact on children—outsourcing of breast milk. Yes, you read it right the first time. Although women have always breastfed other women’s children, as Time magazine recently reported, only now is there a clear for-profit market in human breast milk in the United States.

Studies have shown that breast-fed babies enjoy numerous health benefits which infant formula simply cannot replicate. Clearly, breast milk is best but the question is “whose breast milk?” An infant might benefit most from his own mother’s milk, but there is evidence that another woman’s breast milk is preferable to infant formula. Some mothers are physically unable to provide their children with their own breast milk, while others choose not to because, according to Time, they have “high powered careers.” If the market for human breast milk continues to grow, this latter group (although small) might find itself in the center of the Mommy Wars.

Women who purchase human breast milk are generally wealthier than the women they employ to nurse their children. Although at a salary of $1,000 per week, wet nurses earn more than most nannies, and demand for their services is increasing, some people are uncomfortable with the class and racial implications of this line of work. Let’s not forget that during slavery, Black women often nursed their masters’ children.

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11

Should the Law Recognize Grandparents’ Changing Roles?

Social scientists have long been aware of the significant role that grandparents in many minority and low-income families play in their grandchildren’s upbringing. These grandparents often live with or in close proximity to their grandchildren and provide much of their day to day care. The reasons are, in part, economic as the cost of child care has become prohibitive for many families, but they are also cultural. For example, African-American families have long been more likely than the rest of the U.S. population to rely on extended family members for child care. They are also more likely to encourage what I call quasi-parental relationships between grandparents and grandchildren as opposed to the “companionate” role that, according to sociologists Andrew Cherlin and Frank Furtensberg, the majority of grandparents play. Companionate grandparents play with their grandchildren, they buy them presents, and according to Dr. Kornhaber, the author of various grandparenting books, they become “a buddy,” “pal,” “secret confidante, and, at times, even a lighthearted conspirator” to their grandchildren. However, companionate grandparents have relatively little influence over their grandchildren’s upbringing and little desire for greater involvement.

If the majority of grandparents play only a companionate role in their grandchildren’s upbringing, current jurisprudence on grandparents’ rights makes a lot of sense. The Supreme Court in Troxel v. Granville (2000) held that parents’ constitutional right to raise their children as they see fit requires that their decisions to deny grandparents and other non-parents access to their children be granted “special weight.” Although the Court never defined “special weight,” the majority of lower courts interpreting Troxel have applied a presumption that parents’ decisions to deny non-parents visitation with their children is in children’s best interests.

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8

Why So Few Black Ballerinas?

There was an interesting article in yesterday’s NY Times discussing the absence of Black ballerinas in prominent ballet companies in the U.S. The reasons are many and complex, including economic (ballet is expensive), the pool of qualified dancers is very small, and access to ballet training is quite limited in the U.S. But I was struck by the suggestion that ballet companies are reluctant to hire even exceptionally gifted Black ballerinas because they are afraid to challenge their subscriber base and their expectation of “a ballet company, the way you thought ballet was.” Other Black ballerinas suggested that stereotyping of Black women was a major obstacle to their success because “Black women are perceived as being forceful, which doesn’t square with the ethereal image of a ballerina.”

I must confess that my exposure to ballet is quite limited. Thus, I found it hard to believe that dance companies would pass up the opportunity to recruit talented dancers because they feared their audience reaction. Then I remembered a column which appeared in the NY Times Magazine last December. A reader asked “The Ethicist” columnist whether she was racist because her enjoyment of “The Nutcracker” ballet had been “severely marred by the appearance of a black snowflake and then, even worse, a black Snow King.” According to this anonymous reader, “the aesthetic incongruity was inconceivable. The entire ballet was spoiled.” I am not sure what to make of this reader’s question, but it does suggest that ballet companies’ concerns about their audience’s ability to welcome Black dancers are not completely unfounded. Any thoughts?

8

China Tightens Restrictions on International Adoption—Will Demand for African-American Children Increase?

Thank you for the introduction and the opportunity to guest blog this month. I look forward to everyone’s comments.

The Chinese government’s new restrictions on international adoptions went into effect earlier this week. The new rules require that all adoptive parents be married at least two years (to a person of the opposite sex), that they have at least a high school education, and that their family assets total at least $80,000. Most Americans seeking to adopt internationally have no objection to the educational and financial requirements, possibly because most Americans adopting from China are upper middle class. However, there has been a lot of discussion on the adoption blogs about China’s new age and health requirements. According to the U.S. Department of State, China now requires that all foreigners seeking to adopt be 50 years of age or younger. They also must be free of certain medical conditions such as “mental disorders requiring medication for more than two years, including depression, mania, or anxiety neurosis” or a “Body Mass Index (BMI) of 40 or more.” Persons with severe facial deformities, limb paralysis or dysfunction, or blindness (even if only in one eye) are also disqualified.

Many sending countries place even greater restrictions on foreigners seeking to adopt. In addition, Russia has recently stopped accepting applications from American adoption agencies as it attempts once again to curb rampant corruption in its adoption system. Guatemala has similarly announced that it will impose greater restrictions on international adoptions as it attempts to comply with Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. As a result, many Americans must come to terms with the reality that their odds of creating or expanding their families through international adoption anytime soon might be reduced.

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