Contracts in the Real World and the Law School Curriculum
posted by Nancy S. Kim
There’s been a lot of noise recently about the law school curriculum and real world training. In Contracts courses, that typically means that we should give students experience reviewing and drafting actual agreements.
I think there’s another aspect of training that we need to provide students, and that’s to show them the relevance of the cases we assign from musty books, and show them how to apply those cases to new fact patterns. That’s where Professor Cunningham’s book, Contracts in the Real World, comes in.
It is chock full of fun contracts disputes ripped out of today’s headlines. Of course there’s the People magazine allure of reading about celebrities and their unreasonable demands and unbelievable predicaments. Cunningham’s book tells tales of love children and blackmail, bad bets and bad defenses.
It was so entertaining that I almost felt guilty reading it – which makes me think that my students will enjoy the engaging tales and humorous anecdotes just as much as I did. Cunningham does a great job of weaving old cases with new ones, and new cases with newer ones.
In showing how everything old is new again, Cunningham wages a strong case that contract law is alive and well. It made me feel that my chosen subject area was relevant and timely – and interesting. Sure, Contracts as a 1L course may not have the sex appeal of Con Law, or the life-and-death importance of Crim Law, but Cunningham shows that the subject can be intriguing just the same.
As Professor Collins put it (better and more eloquently) in his post in this symposium, what makes this book unique is not just its readability but that it places contracts within their business context. For students who haven’t yet worked on a deal or negotiated a contract, it helps them to understand abstract concepts to have some sort of setting, something they can imagine. When that setting is one that they’ve read about in the paper or heard in the news, it just makes it more fun.
I did have one minor quibble with the book, and it’s that Cunningham’s “alive and well” view of contracts was misleading with respect to one infamous case. Yes, I’m talking about the quick gloss given to ProCD v, Zeidenberg (and by extension, the slew of cases that followed in its wake).
Cunningham provides what could be interpreted as a rationale for ProCD, but I wish he would have been a bit more critical. I’m not so sure that the case can be justified doctrinally – Judge Easterbrook’s whole bit about ProCD being the master of the offer and the notice of terms in a box – it stretches the truth a bit much.
I’m not quibbling with the result in the case so much as the rationale, and I think the rationale matters for the simple reason that it establishes precedent. Precedent that’s been followed by too many other courts even where the facts don’t warrant it.
The court in ProCD could have enforced the contract against Zeidenberg under a quasi-contract theory or maybe an unfair competition claim (although I can’t recall off hand whether ProCD ever raised that). But the court didn’t, and now we’re stuck with “rolling contracts” and the contracting of everything online.
But Cunningham comes around in the next section when he acknowledges the challenges of applying old doctrine to new encounters. He comes down hard against those who would make blanket statements that website privacy policies cannot be contracts.
As Cunningham notes, “They can be enforceable contracts or promises when meeting traditional tests of manifested intention, assent, and either consideration or reliance.” I couldn’t agree more.
Contracts in the Real World does what may seem impossible to wary 1Ls – it makes an old topic like Contract law seem dynamic, fun – and relevant.
Nancy S. Kim is Professor of Law at California Western School of Law. Some her scholarship can be found here on SSRN.