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For the term "pariser".

Algo-Driven News with a Human Face

Chistopher Steiner’s new book on algorithms looks interesting. (One nugget: Many companies now use software to analyze the emotional tone of customers calling in for customer service help. Sound emotional, and you’ll get routed to the more empathic call center workers.) It’s part of a growing literature on algorithms both online and off. As we search for reliable information on algorithms, they in turn may well be driving even our awareness and discussion of them. It’s another way technology shapes values, rather than being influenced or constrained by them. Consider a recent feature on an increasingly algorithm driven news industry:

Google News-powered results, Google says, are viewed by about 1 billion unique users a week. . . . Which translates, for news outlets overall, to more than 4 billion clicks each month: 1 billion from Google News itself and an additional 3 billion from web search. . . .

Google News’s head of engineering[] summed up the challenge: “How do I take a story that has 20,000 articles, potentially, and showcase all of its variety and breadth to the user?” . . . . Google [is] symbolic of a broader transition: producers’ own grudging acceptance of a media environment in which they are no longer the primary distributors of their own work. [It] suggests an ecosystem that will find producers and amplifiers working collaboratively, rather than competitively. And working, intentionally or not, toward the earnest end that Schmidt expressed two years ago: “the survival of high-quality journalism.”

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The Year in Privacy Books 2011

Here’s a list of notable privacy books published in 2011.

Previous lists:

Privacy Books 2010

Privacy Books 2009

Privacy Books 2008

 

Saul Levmore & Martha Nussbaum, eds., The Offensive Internet (Harvard 2011)

 

This is a great collection of essays about the clash of free speech and privacy online.  I have a book chapter in this volume along with Martha Nussbaum, Cass Sunstein, Brian Leiter, Danielle Citron, Frank Pasquale, Geoffrey Stone, and many others.

Daniel J. Solove, Nothing to Hide: The False Tradeoff Between Privacy and Security (Yale 2011)

 

Nothing to Hide “succinctly and persuasively debunks the arguments that have contributed to privacy’s demise, including the canard that if you have nothing to hide, you have nothing to fear from surveillance. Privacy, he reminds us, is an essential aspect of human existence, and of a healthy liberal democracy—a right that protects the innocent, not just the guilty.” — David Cole, New York Review of Books

Jeff Jarvis, Public Parts: How Sharing in the Digital Age Improves the Way We Work and Live (Simon & Schuster 2011)

 

I strongly disagree with a lot of what Jarvis says, but the book is certainly provocative and engaging.

Daniel J. Solove & Paul M. Schwartz, Privacy Law Fundamentals (IAPP 2011)

 

“A key resource for busy professional practitioners. Solove and Schwartz have succeeded in distilling the fundamentals of privacy law in a manner accessible to a broad audience.” – Jules Polonetsky, Future of Privacy Forum

Eli Pariser, The Filter Bubble (Penguin 2011)

 

An interesting critique of the personalization of the Internet.  We often don’t see the Internet directly, but through tinted goggles designed by others who determine what we want to see. 

Siva Vaidhyanathan, The Googlization of Everything (U. California 2011)

 

A vigorous critique of Google and other companies that shape the Internet.  With regard to privacy, Vaidhyanathan explains how social media and other companies encourage people’s sharing of information through their architecture — and often confound people in their ability to control their reputation.

Susan Landau, Surveillance or Security? The Risk Posed by New Wiretapping Technologies (MIT 2011)

 

A compelling argument for how designing technologies around surveillance capabilities will undermine rather than promote security.

 


Kevin Mitnick, Ghost in the Wires (Little Brown 2011)

 

A fascinating account of the exploits of Kevin Mitnick, the famous ex-hacker who inspired War Games.  His tales are quite engaging, and he demonstrates that hacking is often not just about technical wizardry but old-fashioned con-artistry.

Matt Ivester, lol . . . OMG! (CreateSpace 2011)

 

Ivester created Juicy Campus, the notorious college gossip website.  After the site’s demise, Ivester changed his views about online gossip, recognizing the problems with Juicy Campus and the harms it caused.  In this book, he offers thoughtful advice for students about what they post online.

Joseph Epstein, Gossip: The Untrivial Pursuit (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 2011)

 

A short engaging book that is filled with interesting stories and quotes about gossip.  Highly literate, this book aims to expose gossip’s bad and good sides, and how new media are transforming gossip in troublesome ways.

Anita Allen, Unpopular Privacy (Oxford 2011)

 

My blurb: “We live in a world of increasing exposure, and privacy is increasingly imperiled by the torrent of information being released online. In this powerful book, Anita Allen examines when the law should mandate privacy and when it shouldn’t. With nuance and thoughtfulness, Allen bravely tackles some of the toughest questions about privacy law — those involving the appropriate level of legal paternalism. Unpopular Privacy is lively, engaging, and provocative. It is filled with vivid examples, complex and fascinating issues, and thought-provoking ideas.”

Frederick Lane, Cybertraps for the Young (NTI Upstream 2011)

 

A great overview of the various problems the Internet poses for children such as cyberbullying and sexting.  This book is a very accessible overview for parents.

Clare Sullivan, Digital Identity (University of Adelaide Press 2011)

 

Australian scholar Clare Sullivan explores the rise of “digital identity,” which is used for engaging in various transactions.  Instead of arguing against systematized identification, she sees the future as heading inevitably in that direction and proposes a robust set of rights individuals should have over such identities.  This is a thoughtful and pragmatic book, with a great discussion of Australian, UK, and EU law.

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Internet Filtering And Confirmation Bias: Some Quick Thoughts

In Republic.com, Cass Sunstein develops his concern that Internet technologies will assist us to avoid facts and opinions with which we disagree, thereby undermining deliberative democracy.  Eli Pariser’s new book The Filter Bubble argues that we may not even need to sign up for the “Daily Me” the way things are headed: Internet intermediaries silently filter out what they assume we do not want to see.  For Sunstein, never seeing the other side of an argument fosters an ill-informed, partisan body politic.  For Pariser, excessive personalization leads to an unhealthy distaste for the unfamiliar.

These are wonderful, well-argued books.  But their common thesis begs the same question: what of the extensive evidence in support of confirmation bias in the offline world?  Confirmation bias is a complex phenomenon but suffice it say that numerous studies suggest people will seek out confirmatory facts and opinions, ignore that with which they disagree, and construe ambiguous content to support their preconceptions.  If it turns out people will skip or discount the other side of an argument anyway, then why are we worried about technologies that filter it out?

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Beyond Cyber-Utopianism

What encapsulates the ethos of Silicon Valley? Promoting his company’s prowess at personalization, Mark Zuckerberg once said that, “A squirrel dying in front of your house may be more relevant to your interests right now than people dying in Africa.” Scott Cleland argues that “you can’t trust Google, Inc.,” compiling a critical mass of dubious practices that might seem quite understandable each taken alone. Apple’s “reality distortion field” is the topic of numerous satires. As the internet increasingly converges through these three companies, what are the values driving their decisionmaking?

For some boosters, these are not terribly important questions: the logic of the net itself assures progress. But for Chris Lehmann, the highflying internet-academic-industrial complex has failed to think critically about a consolidating, commercialized cyberspace. Previously featured on this blog for his book, Lehmann’s review of Clay Shirky’s Cognitive Surplus is fairly scathing:

With the emergence of Web 2.0–style social media (things like Facebook, Twitter and text messaging), Shirky writes, we inhabit an unprecedented social reality, “a world where public and private media blend together, where professional and amateur production blur, and where voluntary public participation has moved from nonexistent to fundamental.” This Valhalla of voluntary intellectual labor represents a stupendous crowdsourcing, or pooling, of the planet’s mental resources, hence the idea of the “cognitive surplus.” . . .

[But why] assign any special value to an hour spent online in the first place? Given the proven models of revenue on the web, it’s reasonable to assume that a good chunk of those trillion-plus online hours are devoted to gambling and downloading porn. Yes, the networked web world does produce some appreciable social goods, such as the YouTubed “It Gets Better” appeals to bullied gay teens contemplating suicide. But there’s nothing innate in the character of digital communication that favors feats of compassion and creativity; for every “It Gets Better” video that goes viral, there’s an equally robust traffic in white nationalist, birther and jihadist content online. . . .

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Behind the Filter Bubble: Hidden Maps of the Internet

A small corner of the world of search took another step toward personalization today, as Bing moved to give users the option to personalize their results by drawing on data from their Facebook friends:

Research tells us that 90% of people seek advice from family and friends as part of the decision making process. This “Friend Effect” is apparent in most of our decisions and often outweighs other facts because people feel more confident, smarter and safer with the wisdom of their trusted circle.

Today, Bing is bringing the collective IQ of the Web together with the opinions of the people you trust most, to bring the “Friend Effect” to search. Starting today, you can receive personalized search results based on the opinions of your friends by simply signing into Facebook. New features make it easier to see what your Facebook friends “like” across the Web, incorporate the collective know-how of the Web into your search results, and begin adding a more conversational aspect to your searches.

The announcement almost perfectly coincides with the release of Eli Pariser’s book The Filter Bubble, which argues that “as web companies strive to tailor their services (including news and search results) to our personal tastes, there’s a dangerous unintended consequence: We get trapped in a “filter bubble” and don’t get exposed to information that could challenge or broaden our worldview.” I have earlier worried about both excessive personalization and integration of layers of the web (such as social and search, or carrier and device). I think Microsoft may be reaching for one of very few strategies available to challenge Google’s dominance in search. But I also fear that this is one more example of the “filter bubble” Pariser worries about.
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